1. Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Banned by the Iranian government! -- a book so shocking, so outrageous, that the Supreme Leader doesn't want you to read it! -- available on-line in Persian here.
Click here to read a synopsis of the book.
2. God and the Reach of Reason: C.S. Lewis, David Hume, and Bertrand Russell, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
"Wielenberg's book is clear, precise, insightful, and philosophically rigorous. As someone who ultimately disagrees with his conclusions, I also appreciate the respect and charity towards the other side that is present in the pages of this work. I have used this book as a text in my philosophy of religion course, with much success. Anyone with an interest in the philosophical merits of the theistic arguments given by Lewis will profit from carefully reading God and the Reach of Reason." - Michael Austin, Philosophia Christi
"Today ... there are a slew of books that make the case for Lewis's merits as a philosopher. ... God and the Reach of Reason is a valuable addition to this genre. Wielenberg ... is a clear-headed analytic philosopher who knows Lewis's works and the relevant secondary literature well. ... Wielenberg's God and the Reach of Reason offers an admiring yet critical appraisal of Lewis's principal arguments for Christian belief. It is must reading for Lewis fans who value -- as Lewis himself pre-eminently did -- clear prose and rigorous logic." - Gregory Bassham, Faith and Philosophy
"God and the Reach of Reason is an enjoyable and informative read. ... Wielenberg's presentation of what he takes to be the views and arguments is extremely clear, and his criticisms of them fair and charitable. ... [T]he objections he offers are sound. I recommend this book to anyone who wants to read a critical interpretation and assessment of C.S. Lewis's views on religion." - Bruce Russell, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews
“Readers who have appreciated the work of Lewis will be gratified by Wielenberg's suggestion, which is itself a major point of this book, that Lewis should be taken seriously as a philosopher. He argues despite often being skeptical of Lewis's success, that Lewis contributed to twentieth-century thought in a number of important areas. On the whole, God and the Reach of Reason is a thought-provoking work that touches on a number of interesting topics.” - John Giannini, Religious Studies Review
"Wielenberg is not a ranting atheist, but seeks to address these questions in a scholarly manner and with trust in the power of sheer argument. ... Its dialogical style makes this book an engaging read. Unlike some books on the philosophy of religion in the analytical tradition, this piece is easily approachable, lucid, and intellectually nourishing. Its introduction of several voices into the discussion helps keep the text going; it (almost) reads like a novel." - Olli-Pekka Vainio, The Journal of Inklings Studies
"A very interesting book creating a dialogue between C.S. Lewis, David Hume, and Bertrand Russell. ... One of the great strengths of the book is its systematic presentation of the arguments as a series of interrelated propositions, so that the reader can grasp exactly what is at stake. A very worthwhile book for philosophically minded readers." - David Lorimer, Network Review
3. Robust Ethics: The Metaphysics and Epistemology of Godless Normative Realism, Oxford University Press, 2014.
"Two characteristics distinguish Wielenberg's book from other recent defenses of robust realism. First, Wielenberg takes not just naturalistic but also theistic alternatives to robust realism seriously, arguing that non-theistic robust realism 'is at least as plausible' as theistic versions of moral realism (x). Second, Wielenberg engages extensively with recent work in empirical psychology, arguing that, far from posing skeptical challenges to robust realism, this work fits comfortably with an approach to moral knowledge that robust realists embrace. In both these (and other) respects, Robust Realism is a welcome contribution to metaethics. ... Robust Ethics tackles some long-standing and fascinating problems in metaethics by making some novel moves and venturing into some relatively uncharted territory. For these reasons, it is a book well worth reading." -- Terence Cuneo, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews
"[E]ven those who doubt its conclusions must acknowledge that Wielenberg’s book is excellent. His writing is extremely accessible, engaging, witty, and clear, he develops various fascinating novel arguments, and skilfully links analytic reflections with the consideration of empirical data. Consequently, Robust Ethics is a highly valuable contribution to metaethics, and in particular ranks among the best defences of robust normative realism so far." -- Thomas Polzler, Ethical Perspectives
"Overall, Wielenberg excels in clearly laying out some of the main objections to nonnaturalist realism in moral metaphysics and epistemology. He is also very good at finding the weak spots of these objections and in presenting philosophically and empirically plausible responses to them." -- Jussi Suikkanen, Ethics
"Robust Ethics is a relevant, worthwhile and well-argued addition to the ongoing debate about robust moral realism and its alleged inability to account for moral knowledge. Moral realists of theist, naturalist and robust inclinations will profit from reading the book, for it provides the outline for a novel way to conceive of the origins of moral beliefs." -- Michael Klenk, dialectica
Book series co-edited: Palgrave Frontiers in Philosophy of Religion, co-edited with Yujin Nagasawa:
Journal Articles and Book Chapters:
1. "Goodness without Qualification," The Journal of Value Inquiry 32:1 (March 1998), 93-104.
2. "Omnipotence Again," Faith and Philosophy 17:1 (January 2000), 26-47. Russian translation in Philosophy of Religion: An Almanac 2006-2007, ed. by V.K Schokhin (Moscow: Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2007), 181-211.
3. "Many Are Culled But Few Are Chosen," Religious Studies 36:1 (March 2000), 81-93.
4. "Pleasure as a Sign of Moral Virtue in the Nicomachean Ethics," The Journal of Value Inquiry 34:4 (December 2000), 439-449.
5. "The New Paradox of the Stone Revisited," Faith and Philosophy 18:2 (April 2001), 261-268.
6. "How to be an Alethically Rational Naturalist," Synthese 131:1 (April 2002), 81-98.
7. "Pleasure, Pain, and Moral Character and Development," Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83:3 (September 2002), 282-299.
8. "A Morally Unsurpassable God Must Create the Best," Religious Studies 40:1 (March 2004), 43-62.
9. "Egoism and Eudaimonia-Maximization in the Nicomachean Ethics," Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 26 (Summer 2004), 277-295.
10. "Saving Character," Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9:4 (August 2006), 461-491.
11. "Response to Maria Antonaccio," Conversations in Religion and Theology 4:2 (November 2006), 219-224 (invited).
12. "In Defense of Non-Natural, Non-Theistic Moral Realism," Faith and Philosophy 26:1 (January 2009), 23-41.
13. "Dawkins's Gambit, Hume's Aroma, and God's Simplicity," Philosophia Christi 11:1 (Summer 2009), 111-125.
14. "On the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality," Ethics 120 (April 2010), 441-464,
15. "Objective Morality and the Nature of Reality," American Theological Inquiry 3:2 (July 2010), 77-84 (invited).
16. "Skeptical Theism and Divine Lies," Religious Studies 46:4 (2010), 509-523.
17. "God, Morality, and Meaning in Cormac McCarthy's The Road," The Cormac McCarthy Journal 8:1 (2010), 1-16.
18. "Aristotelian Love-making," in Adrianne L. McEvoy (ed.), Sex, Love, and Friendship: Studies of the Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love: 1993-2003 (New York: Rodopi, 2011), 365-372.
19. "The Failure of Brown's New Supervenience Argument," Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy (October 2011).
20. "An Inconsistency in Craig's Defence of the Moral Argument," European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4:4 (2012), 49-58.
21. "Atheism and Morality," in Stephen Bullivant and Michael Ruse (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), 89-103 (invited).
22. "Divine Deception," in Trent Dougherty and Justin McBrayer (eds.), Skeptical Theism: New Essays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) (invited).
23. "Disgust, Moral Knowledge, and Virtue," in Nancy Snow and Franco Trivigno (eds.), The Philosophy and Psychology of Character and Happiness (New York: Routledge University Press, 2014), 91-112 (invited).
24. "Difference-Making and Easy Knowledge: Reply to Comesana and Sartorio," Logos & Episteme 61:1 (March 2015): 141-6.
25. "A Critique of C.S. Lewis's Moral Argument" and "Reply to Baggett," in Gregory Bassham (ed.), C.S. Lewis's Christian Apologetics: Pro and Con (Boston: Rodopi-Brill, 2015), 141-52 and 163-70 (invited).
26. "The Parent-Child Analogy and the Limits of Skeptical Theism,"International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 78:3 (2015): 301-14.
27. "Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Religion and Morality," in Uri Leibowitz and Neil Sinclar (eds.), Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), pp. 83-102 (invited).
28. "Plantingian Theism and the Free-Will Defence," Religious Studies 52:4 (2016): 451-460.
29. "Euthyphro and Moral Realism: A Reply to Harrison," Sophia 55:3 (2016): 437-449.
30. "Ethics and Evolutionary Theory," Analysis 76:4 (2016): 502-515 (invited).
31. "Agency and Responsibility in a Natural World," in John Shook and Phil Zuckerman (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Secularism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017), pp. 623-637 (invited).
32. "In Defense of Theism-Independent Moral Realism," in Leonard Clapp (ed.), Philosophy for Us (Cognella, 2018), pp. 125-133 (invited).33. "Secular Humility," in Jennifer Cole Wright (ed.), Humility: Reflections on Its Nature and Function (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming) (invited).
1. Review of Providence Lost, by Genevieve Lloyd, The Philosophers’ Magazine 45:2nd quarter, 2009, pp. 106-107 (invited).
2. Review of The Clarity of God's Existence: The Ethics of Belief after the Enlightenment, by Owen Anderson, Reviews in Religion and Theology 16:4 (2009), pp. 573-575 (invited).
3. Review of On the Intrinsic Value of Everything, by Scott A. Davison, Ethics 123:1 (October 2012): 141-6 (invited).
4. Review of Nature is Enough: Religious Naturalism and the Meaning of Life, by Loyal Rue, Philosophy, Theology, and the Sciences 1:1 (2014): 134-8 (invited).
5. Review of The Cambridge Companion to C.S. Lewis, edited by Robert MacSwain and Michael Ward, English Studies 95:2 (2014): 226-7.
6. Review of Moral Tribes: Reason, Emotion, and the Gap between Us and Them, by Joshua Greene, Ethics 124:4 (2014): 910-6 (invited).
7. Review of God, Value, and Nature, by Fiona Ellis, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 78:1 (2015): 131-5 (invited).
8. "Homosexual Sex and the One-Flesh Union" (review of One Body, by Alexander Pruss), Annals of Philosophy 63:3 (2015): 107-17 (invited).
9. "Metz's Case Against Supernaturalism" (review of Meaning in Life, by Thaddeus Metz), European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 8:2 (2016) (invited).
1. "Aslan the Terrible: Painful Encounters with Absolute Goodness," in The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy, edited by Gregory Bassham and Jerry Walls (Chicago: Open Court Press, 2005), 221-230.
2. "I Think, Therefore I Am Misunderstood" -- "My Turn" essay for Newsweek, October 16, 2006.
3. Op-ed piece on objective morality without God in the Shreveport Times, February 23, 2008.
4. "The problem with moral knowledge," blog post at OUPblog, September 21, 2014.
1. "Comments on 'Why Species Extermination is Wrong', by Ben Bradley," UMass Philosophy Graduate Student Colloquium, October 31, 1997.
2. "A New Approach to Omnipotence," 1998 Eastern Regional meeting of the Society of Christian Philosophers, University of Delaware, April 2-4, 1998.
3. "Moral Perfection and the No Best World Defense," 1999 Midwest Regional meeting of the Society of Christian Philosophers, Marquette University, March 25-27, 1999.
4. "Pleasure, Pain, and Moral Character," fall meeting of the Indiana Philosophical Association, Franklin College, Franklin, Indiana, November 4, 2000.
5. "Aristotelian Love-Making," (i) Fifty-Second Annual Northwest Conference on Philosophy, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon, November 10-11, 2000; (ii) Society for the Philosophy of Sex and Love at the Eastern Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association in New York, December 27-30, 2000.
6. "Comments on Edward Wierenga's 'Trinity and Polytheism'", Sixth Biennial UMass Alumni Philosophy Conference, October 13, 2001.
7. "How to Be an Alethically Rational Naturalist," (i) Eastern Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Atlanta, Georgia, December 27-30, 2001; (ii) central division meeting of the Society of Christian Philosophers at Bethel College, St. Paul, Minnesota, March 7-9, 2002; (iii) 2002 Atlantic Region Philosophy Conference, University of Prince Edward Island, October 18-19, 2002.
8. "C.S. Lewis vs. the Atheists," DePauw University Faculty Research Colloqium, November 22, 2002.
9. "A Morally Unsurpassable God Must Create the Best," (i) 2003 Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 12-15, 2003; (ii) Central Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Cleveland, Ohio, April 23-26, 2003.
10. "Wielenberg and His Mass (Comments on Kaufman)," Seventh Biennial UMass Alumni Philosophy Conference,
October 11, 2003.
11. "Aristotelian Egoism and Richard Kraut's Argument From Ostracism," Indiana Philosophical Association meeting,
Ball State University, November 1, 2003.
12. "Egoism and Eudaimonia-Maximization in the Nicomachean Ethics," meeting of the Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy at the Central Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 22-25, 2004.
13. "Aquinasizing the Impeded-Function Argument (Comments on Sullivan)," Indiana Philosophical Association meeting, DePauw University, May 1, 2004.
14. "Author Meets Critics: Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe," Eighth Biennial UMass Alumni Philosophy Conference, October 8, 2005.
15. "Having Your Cake and Eating it Too: Objective Ethical Truth without God," (i) Forum on Religious Issues, University of Wisconsin-Parkside, March 6, 2006 (invited); (ii) West Virginia University, March 28, 2006 (invited); (iii) Florida Southern College, March 30, 2006 (invited); (iv) Wabash College, April 6, 2006 (invited); (v) Hanover College, May 17, 2006 (invited).
16. "Bertrand Russell and C.S. Lewis: Two Peas in a Pod?" Bertrand Russell Society meeting at the Central Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Chicago, Illinois, April 27, 2006.
17. "God and Morality," University School, Cleveland, Ohio, January 9, 2007 (invited).
18. "Objective Ethics in a Godless Universe," (i) Center for Inquiry Transnational, Amherst, New York, April 13, 2007 (invited); (ii) The Jefferson Center, Ashland, Oregon, April 26, 2007 (invited); (iii) Lawrence University, April 30, 2007 (invited); (iv) Centenary College, Shreveport, Louisiana, February 25, 2008 (invited).
19. "Skeptical Theism and Divine Lies," (i) DePauw Faculty Forum, October 11, 2007; (ii) Fourth Annual Philosophy of Religion Conference, Baylor University, February 5-7, 2009; (iii) Pacific Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Vancouver, British Columbia, April 8-12, 2009.
20. "On the Evolutionary Debunking of Morality," (i) Second Annual Rocky Mountain Ethics Congress, University of Colorado, Boulder, August 6-9, 2009; (ii) Pacific Division meeting of the American Philosophical Association, San Francisco, California, March 31-April 3, 2010.
21, "Can Sociopaths Make Moral Judgments?" meeting of the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology, Atlanta, Georgia, April 15-17, 2010.
22. "Divine Deception," (i) 2011 Midwest Conference of the Society of Christian Philosophers, Hope College, February 24-26, 2011 (invited); (ii) Australasian Philosophy of Religion Association Meeting, University of Auckland, New Zealand, July 16-17, 2011 (invited); (iii) C.S. Lewis 50th Memorial Conference at Baylor University, November 23, 2013 (invited).
23. "Qualia and the Banality of Queerness," Naturalisms in Ethics Conference, University of Auckland, New Zealand, July 14-15, 2011 (invited).
24. "Objective Ethics in a Godless Universe," Furman University, Greenville, South Carolina, April 3, 2012 (invited).
25. "Disgust and Moral Knowledge," meeting of the Society for Philosophy and Psychology, University of Colorado, Boulder, June 21-23, 2012.
26. "Three Ways the Moral Can Supervene," (i) Fifth Annual Rocky Mountain Ethics Conference (RoME), University of Colorado, Boulder, August 9-12, 2012; (ii) Syracuse Philosophy Annual Workshop and Network (SPAWN), Syracuse University, August 14-16, 2012 (invited).
27. "Comments on Sharon Street's 'If There is a God, Then Everything (That Happens) is Permitted," Challenges to Religious and Moral Belief: Disagreement and Evolution, Purdue University, September 6-8, 2012 (invited).
28. "Interview with an Atheist" Panel Discussion with Trent Dougherty at the C.S. Lewis 50th Memorial Conference, Baylor University, November 22, 2013 (invited).
29. "Empirical Moral Psychology and Some Challenges to Moral Knowledge," Philosophy Club, University of St. Andrews, October 1, 2014 (invited).
30. "The Absurdity of Life in a Christian Universe," (i) 7th Philosophy of Religion One-Day Workshop, the University of Birmingham, October 9, 2014 (invited); (ii) the Joseph Butler Society, University of Oxford, February 23, 2015 (invited); (iii) Workshop on "What Difference Would (or Does) God's Existence Make?" Ryerson University, September 11-12, 2015.
31. "Secular Humility?", the C.S. Lewis Society, University of Oxford, February 24, 2015 (invited).
32. "Secular Humility," (i) the Jubilee Centre for Character and Virtues, the University of Birmingham, May 13, 2015 (invited); (ii) DePauw Faculty Forum, September 2, 2015.
33. "Rowe's Evidential Argument and the Demise of Skeptical Theism," William L. Rowe Memorial Conference, Purdue University, July 26-27, 2016 (invited).
34. "Plantingian Theism and the Free Will Defense," Purdue University, November 12, 2016 (invited).
35. "Comments on 'Happiness, Suffering and Prudential Asymmetry', by Jennifer Hawkins," Eastern Division Meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Baltimore, January 4-7, 2017 (invited).
36. "Comments on God's Own Ethics by Mark Murphy," Eastern Division Meeting of the American Philosophical Association, Baltimore, January 4-7, 2017 (invited).
37. "Reply to Craig, Murphy, McNabb, and Johnson," Evangelical Philosophical Society session titled "Erik Wielenberg's Robust Ethics: Theistic Responses," at the 2017 joint meeting of the American Academy of Religion and the Society of Biblical Literature, Boston, November 20, 2017 (invited).
Part of chapter 2 of Value and Virtue appears as “God and Morality” in Ethical Theory: An Anthology, 2nd edition(Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), edited by Russ Shafer-Landau, pp. 242-252. Part of chapter 1 appears as "God and the Meaning of Life" in Exploring the Meaning of Life (Wiley-Blackwell 2013), edited by Joshua W. Seachris, pp. 335-352.
"Even those ... who are out of sympathy with Wielenberg's approach, and his worldview, will find much that is worthwhile in this book. It is written with verve and clarity, and is for the most part highly accessible, yet densely packed with thoughtful and often provocative ideas and arguments. It bears the hallmark of having been forged in the lecture-room through vigorous debate, and it should provoke equally vigorous discussion among students and others. Altogether, it is a useful addition to the new and exciting wave of philosophical writing that is turning the skills of analytic philosophy back upon ancient and central questions about the meaning of human existence." - John Cottingham, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews
"Erik J. Wielenberg in Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe ... respond[s] to the current malaise in atheism by engaging in respectful and serious debate with [his] opponents. Wielenberg presents an analytical philosopher's argument, beautifully restrained and precise." - Ronald Aronson, Bookforum
"[T]here is plenty in this book to appeal to atheists, theists, and agnostics alike. It is both readable and rewarding; many interesting questions are raised, and at times novel and compelling solutions to old chestnuts are proposed. Furthermore, the author keeps things lively by inserting creative stories, passages from literature, and a breadth of commentaries from other thinkers who have wrestled with the issues he addresses. Anyone interested in the relationship between God, value, and virtue would benefit from adding this book to her collection." - Bradley Sickler, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion
"Wielenberg’s rejection of arguments for the conclusion that naturalism is false because of its ethical implications—nihilism, relativism, hedonism, and/or egoism—is both clear and thought-provoking. Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe is written in a clear and accessible style, such that it could be used as a text in an undergraduate course in philosophy of religion or ethics. However, it is not overly simplistic; the arguments contained in the book are well-crafted and deserve careful attention. Those who wish to defend the view that objective morality and meaning require God’s existence will find much to consider in this book." - Michael Austin, Philosophia Christi
"Wielenberg has written a worthwhile book, and he has done this with verve. His arguments are often provocative." - Luc Aerts, Ethical Perspectives
1. The Meaning of “Meaning”
One part of the field of life's meaning consists of the systematic attempt to clarify what people mean when they ask in virtue of what life has meaning. This section addresses different accounts of the sense of talk of “life's meaning” (and of “significance,” “importance,” and other synonyms). A large majority of those writing on life's meaning deem talk of it centrally to indicate a positive final value that an individual's life can exhibit. That is, comparatively few believe either that a meaningful life is a merely neutral quality, or that what is of key interest is the meaning of the human species or universe as a whole (for discussions focused on the latter, see Edwards 1972; Munitz 1986; Seachris 2009). Most in the field have ultimately wanted to know whether and how the existence of one of us over time has meaning, a certain property that is desirable for its own sake.
Beyond drawing the distinction between the life of an individual and that of a whole, there has been very little discussion of life as the logical bearer of meaning. For instance, is the individual's life best understood biologically, qua human being, or instead as the existence of a person that may or may not be human (Flanagan 1996)? And if an individual is loved from afar, can it logically affect the meaningfulness of her “life” (Brogaard and Smith 2005, 449)?
Returning to topics on which there is consensus, most writing on meaning believe that it comes in degrees such that some periods of life are more meaningful than others and that some lives as a whole are more meaningful than others (perhaps contra Britton 1969, 192). Note that one can coherently hold the view that some people's lives are less meaningful than others, or even meaningless, and still maintain that people have an equal moral status. Consider a consequentialist view according to which each individual counts for one in virtue of having a capacity for a meaningful life (cf. Railton 1984), or a Kantian view that says that people have an intrinsic worth in virtue of their capacity for autonomous choices, where meaning is a function of the exercise of this capacity (Nozick 1974, ch. 3). On both views, morality could counsel an agent to help people with relatively meaningless lives, at least if the condition is not of their choosing.
Another uncontroversial element of the sense of “meaningfulness” is that it connotes a good that is conceptually distinct from happiness or rightness (something emphasized in Wolf 2010). First, to ask whether someone's life is meaningful is not one and the same as asking whether her life is happy or pleasant. A life in an experience or virtual reality machine could conceivably be happy but very few take it to be a prima facie candidate for meaningfulness (Nozick 1974: 42–45). Indeed, many would say that talk of “meaning” by definition excludes the possibility of it coming from time spent in an experience machine (although there have been a small handful who disagree and contend that a meaningful life just is a pleasant life. Goetz 2012, in particular, bites many bullets.) Furthermore, one's life logically could become meaningful precisely by sacrificing one's happiness, e.g., by helping others at the expense of one's self-interest.
Second, asking whether a person's existence is significant is not identical to considering whether she has been morally upright; there seem to be ways to enhance meaning that have nothing to do with morality, at least impartially conceived, for instance, making a scientific discovery.
Of course, one might argue that a life would be meaningless if (or even because) it were unhappy or immoral, particularly given Aristotelian conceptions of these disvalues. However, that is to posit a synthetic, substantive relationship between the concepts, and is far from indicating that speaking of “meaning in life” is analytically a matter of connoting ideas regarding happiness or rightness, which is what I am denying here. My point is that the question of what makes a life meaningful is conceptually distinct from the question of what makes a life happy or moral, even if it turns out that the best answer to the question of meaning appeals to an answer to one of these other evaluative questions.
If talk about meaning in life is not by definition talk about happiness or rightness, then what is it about? There is as yet no consensus in the field. One answer is that a meaningful life is one that by definition has achieved choice-worthy purposes (Nielsen 1964) or involves satisfaction upon having done so (Hepburn 1965; Wohlgennant 1981). However, for such an analysis to clearly demarcate meaningfulness from happiness, it would be useful to modify it to indicate which purposes are germane to the former. On this score, some suggest that conceptual candidates for grounding meaning are purposes that not only have a positive value, but also render a life coherent (Markus 2003), make it intelligible (Thomson 2003, 8–13), or transcend animal nature (Levy 2005).
Now, it might be that a focus on any kind of purpose is too narrow for ruling out the logical possibility that meaning could inhere in certain actions, experiences, states, or relationships that have not been adopted as ends and willed and that perhaps even could not be, e.g., being an immortal offshoot of an unconscious, spiritual force that grounds the physical universe, as in Hinduism. In addition, the above purpose-based analyses exclude as not being about life's meaning some of the most widely read texts that purport to be about it, namely, Jean-Paul Sartre's (1948) existentialist account of meaning being constituted by whatever one chooses, and Richard Taylor's (1970, ch. 18) discussion of Sisyphus being able to acquire meaning in his life merely by having his strongest desires satisfied. These are prima facie accounts of meaning in life, but do not essentially involve the attainment of purposes that foster coherence, intelligibility or transcendence.
The latter problem also faces the alternative suggestion that talk of “life's meaning” is not necessarily about purposes, but is rather just a matter of referring to goods that are qualitatively superior, worthy of love and devotion, and appropriately awed (Taylor 1989, ch. 1). It is implausible to think that these criteria are satisfied by subjectivist appeals to whatever choices one ends up making or to whichever desires happen to be strongest for a given person.
Although relatively few have addressed the question of whether there exists a single, primary sense of “life's meaning,” the inability to find one so far might suggest that none exists. In that case, it could be that the field is united in virtue of addressing certain overlapping but not equivalent ideas that have family resemblances (Metz 2013, ch. 2). Perhaps when we speak of “meaning in life,” we have in mind one or more of these related ideas: certain conditions that are worthy of great pride or admiration, values that warrant devotion and love, qualities that make a life intelligible, or ends apart from base pleasure that are particularly choice-worthy. Another possibility is that talk of “meaning in life” fails to exhibit even this degree of unity, and is instead a grab-bag of heterogenous ideas (Mawson 2010; Oakley 2010).
As the field reflects more on the sense of “life's meaning,” it should not only try to ascertain in what respect it admits of unity, but also try to differentiate the concept of life's meaning from other, closely related ideas. For instance, the concept of a worthwhile life is probably not identical to that of a meaningful one (Baier 1997, ch. 5; Metz 2012). For instance, one would not be conceptually confused to claim that a meaningless life full of animal pleasures would be worth living. Furthermore, it seems that talk of a “meaningless life” does not simply connote the concept of an absurd (Nagel 1970; Feinberg 1980), unreasonable (Baier 1997, ch. 5), futile (Trisel 2002), or wasted (Kamm 2003, 210–14) life.
Fortunately the field does not need an extremely precise analysis of the concept of life's meaning (or definition of the phrase “life's meaning”) in order to make progress on the substantive question of what life's meaning is. Knowing that meaningfulness analytically concerns a variable and gradient final good in a person's life that is conceptually distinct from happiness, rightness, and worthwhileness provides a certain amount of common ground. The rest of this discussion addresses attempts to theoretically capture the nature of this good.
Most English speaking philosophers writing on meaning in life are trying to develop and evaluate theories, i.e., fundamental and general principles that are meant to capture all the particular ways that a life could obtain meaning. These theories are standardly divided on a metaphysical basis, i.e., in terms of which kinds of properties are held to constitute the meaning. Supernaturalist theories are views that meaning in life must be constituted by a certain relationship with a spiritual realm. If God or a soul does not exist, or if they exist but one fails to have the right relationship with them, then supernaturalism—or the Western version of it (on which I focus)—entails that one's life is meaningless. In contrast, naturalist theories are views that meaning can obtain in a world as known solely by science. Here, although meaning could accrue from a divine realm, certain ways of living in a purely physical universe would be sufficient for it. Note that there is logical space for a non-naturalist theory that meaning is a function of abstract properties that are neither spiritual nor physical. However, only scant attention has been paid to this possibility in the Anglo-American literature (Williams 1999; Audi 2005).
Supernaturalist thinkers in the monotheistic tradition are usefully divided into those with God-centered views and soul-centered views. The former take some kind of connection with God (understood to be a spiritual person who is all-knowing, all-good, and all-powerful and who is the ground of the physical universe) to constitute meaning in life, even if one lacks a soul (construed as an immortal, spiritual substance). The latter deem having a soul and putting it into a certain state to be what makes life meaningful, even if God does not exist. Of course, many supernaturalists believe that certain relationships with God and a soul are jointly necessary and sufficient for a significant existence. However, the simpler view is common, and often arguments proffered for the more complex view fail to support it any more than the simpler view.
2.1 God-centered Views
The most widely held and influential God-based account of meaning in life is that one's existence is more significant, the better one fulfills a purpose God has assigned. The familiar idea is that God has a plan for the universe and that one's life is meaningful to the degree that one helps God realize this plan, perhaps in the particular way God wants one to do so (Affolter 2007). Fulfilling God's purpose by choice is the sole source of meaning, with the existence of an afterlife not necessary for it (Brown 1971; Levine 1987; Cottingham 2003). If a person failed to do what God intends him to do with his life, then, on the current view, his life would be meaningless.
What I call “purpose theorists” differ over what it is about God's purpose that makes it uniquely able to confer meaning on human lives. Some argue that God's purpose could be the sole source of invariant moral rules, where a lack of such would render our lives nonsensical (Craig 1994; Cottingham 2003). However, Euthyphro problems arguably plague this rationale; God's purpose for us must be of a particular sort for our lives to obtain meaning by fulfilling it (as is often pointed out, serving as food for intergalactic travelers won't do), which suggests that there is a standard external to God's purpose that determines what the content of God's purpose ought to be (but see Cottingham 2005, ch. 3). In addition, some critics argue that a universally applicable and binding moral code is not necessary for meaning in life, even if the act of helping others is (Ellin 1995, 327).
Other purpose theorists contend that having been created by God for a reason would be the only way that our lives could avoid being contingent (Craig 1994; cf. Haber 1997). But it is unclear whether God's arbitrary will would avoid contingency, or whether his non-arbitrary will would avoid contingency anymore than a deterministic physical world. Furthermore, the literature is still unclear what contingency is and why it is a deep problem. Still other purpose theorists maintain that our lives would have meaning only insofar as they were intentionally fashioned by a creator, thereby obtaining meaning of the sort that an art-object has (Gordon 1983). Here, though, freely choosing to do any particular thing would not be necessary for meaning, and everyone's life would have an equal degree of meaning, which are both counterintuitive implications (see Trisel 2012 for additional criticisms). Are all these objections sound? Is there a promising reason for thinking that fulfilling God's (as opposed to any human's) purpose is what constitutes meaning in life?
Not only does each of these versions of the purpose theory have specific problems, but they all face this shared objection: if God assigned us a purpose, then God would degrade us and thereby undercut the possibility of us obtaining meaning from fulfilling the purpose (Baier 1957, 118–20; Murphy 1982, 14–15; Singer 1996, 29). This objection goes back at least to Jean-Paul Sartre (1948, 45), and there are many replies to it in the literature that have yet to be assessed (e.g., Hepburn 1965, 271–73; Brown 1971, 20–21; Davis 1986, 155–56; Hanfling 1987, 45–46; Moreland 1987, 129; Walker 1989; Jacquette 2001, 20–21).
Robert Nozick presents a God-centered theory that focuses less on God as purposive and more on God as infinite (Nozick 1981, ch. 6, 1989, chs. 15–16; see also Cooper 2005). The basic idea is that for a finite condition to be meaningful, it must obtain its meaning from another condition that has meaning. So, if one's life is meaningful, it might be so in virtue of being married to a person, who is important. And, being finite, the spouse must obtain his or her importance from elsewhere, perhaps from the sort of work he or she does. And this work must obtain its meaning by being related to something else that is meaningful, and so on. A regress on meaningful finite conditions is present, and the suggestion is that the regress can terminate only in something infinite, a being so all-encompassing that it need not (indeed, cannot) go beyond itself to obtain meaning from anything else. And that is God.
The standard objection to this rationale is that a finite condition could be meaningful without obtaining its meaning from another meaningful condition; perhaps it could be meaningful in itself, or obtain its meaning by being related to something beautiful, autonomous or otherwise valuable for its own sake but not meaningful (Thomson 2003, 25–26, 48).
The purpose- and infinity-based rationales are the two most common instances of God-centered theory in the literature, and the naturalist can point out that they arguably face a common problem: a purely physical world seems able to do the job for which God is purportedly necessary. Nature seems able to ground a universal morality and the sort of final value from which meaning might spring. And other God-based views seem to suffer from this same problem. For two examples, some claim that God must exist in order for there to be a just world, where a world in which the bad do well and the good fare poorly would render our lives senseless (Craig 1994; cf. Cottingham 2003, pt. 3), and others maintain that God's remembering all of us with love is alone what would confer significance on our lives (Hartshorne 1984). However, the naturalist will point out that an impersonal, Karmic-like force of nature conceivably could justly distribute penalties and rewards in the way a retributive personal judge would, and that actually living together in loving relationships would seem to confer much more meaning on life than a loving fond remembrance.
A second problem facing all God-based views is the existence of apparent counterexamples. If we think of the stereotypical lives of Albert Einstein, Mother Teresa, and Pablo Picasso, they seem meaningful even if we suppose there is no all-knowing, all-powerful, and all-good spiritual person who is the ground of the physical world. Even religiously inclined philosophers find this hard to deny (Quinn 2000, 58; Audi 2005), though some of them suggest that a supernatural realm is necessary for a “deep” or “ultimate” meaning (Nozick 1981, 618; Craig 1994, 42). What is the difference between a deep meaning and a shallow one? And why think a spiritual realm is necessary for the former?
At this point, the supernaturalist could usefully step back and reflect on what it might be about God that would make Him uniquely able to confer meaning in life, perhaps as follows from the perfect being theological tradition. For God to be solely responsible for any significance in our lives, God must have certain qualities that cannot be found in the natural world, these qualities must be qualitatively superior to any goods possible in a physical universe, and they must be what ground meaning in it. Here, the supernaturalist could argue that meaning depends on the existence of a perfect being, where perfection requires properties such as atemporality, simplicity, and immutability that are possible only in a spiritual realm (Metz 2013, chs. 6–7; cf. Morris 1992; contra Brown 1971 and Hartshorne 1996). Meaning might come from loving a perfect being or orienting one's life toward it in other ways such as imitating it or even fulfilling its purpose, perhaps a purpose tailor-made for each individual (as per Affolter 2007).
Although this might be a promising strategy for a God-centered theory, it faces a serious dilemma. On the one hand, in order for God to be the sole source of meaning, God must be utterly unlike us; for the more God were like us, the more reason there would be to think we could obtain meaning from ourselves, absent God. On the other hand, the more God is utterly unlike us, the less clear it is how we could obtain meaning by relating to Him. How can one love a being that cannot change? How can one imitate such a being? Could an immutable, atemporal, simple being even have purposes? Could it truly be a person? And why think an utterly perfect being is necessary for meaning? Why would not a very good but imperfect being confer some meaning?
2.2 Soul-centered Views
A soul-centered theory is the view that meaning in life comes from relating in a certain way to an immortal, spiritual substance that supervenes on one's body when it is alive and that will forever outlive its death. If one lacks a soul, or if one has a soul but relates to it in the wrong way, then one's life is meaningless. There are two prominent arguments for a soul-based perspective.
The first one is often expressed by laypeople and is suggested by the work of Leo Tolstoy (1884; see also Hanfling 1987, 22–24; Morris 1992, 26; Craig 1994). Tolstoy argues that for life to be meaningful something must be worth doing, that nothing is worth doing if nothing one does will make a permanent difference to the world, and that doing so requires having an immortal, spiritual self. Many of course question whether having an infinite effect is necessary for meaning (e.g., Schmidtz 2001; Audi 2005, 354–55). Others point out that one need not be immortal in order to have an infinite effect (Levine 1987, 462), for God's eternal remembrance of one's mortal existence would be sufficient for that.
The other major rationale for a soul-based theory of life's meaning is that a soul is necessary for perfect justice, which, in turn, is necessary for a meaningful life. Life seems nonsensical when the wicked flourish and the righteous suffer, at least supposing there is no other world in which these injustices will be rectified, whether by God or by Karma. Something like this argument can be found in the Biblical chapter Ecclesiastes, and it continues to be defended (Davis 1987; Craig 1994). However, like the previous rationale, the inferential structure of this one seems weak; even if an afterlife were required for just outcomes, it is not obvious why an eternal afterlife should be thought necessary (Perrett 1986, 220).
Work has been done to try to make the inferences of these two arguments stronger, and the basic strategy has been to appeal to the value of perfection (Metz 2013, ch. 7). Perhaps the Tolstoian reason why one must live forever in order to make the relevant permanent difference is an agent-relative need for one to honor an infinite value, something qualitatively higher than the worth of, say, pleasure. And maybe the reason why immortality is required in order to mete out just deserts is that rewarding the virtuous requires satisfying their highest free and informed desires, one of which would be for eternal flourishing of some kind (Goetz 2012). While far from obviously sound, these arguments at least provide some reason for thinking that immortality is necessary to satisfy the major premise about what is required for meaning.
However, both arguments are still plagued by a problem facing the original versions; even if they show that meaning depends on immortality, they do not yet show that it depends on having a soul. By definition, if one has a soul, then one is immortal, but it is not clearly true that if one is immortal, then one has a soul. Perhaps being able to upload one's consciousness into an infinite succession of different bodies in an everlasting universe would count as an instance of immortality without a soul. Such a possibility would not require an individual to have an immortal spiritual substance (imagine that when in between bodies, the information constitutive of one's consciousness were temporarily stored in a computer). What reason is there to think that one must have a soul in particular for life to be significant?
The most promising reason seems to be one that takes us beyond the simple version of soul-centered theory to the more complex view that both God and a soul constitute meaning. The best justification for thinking that one must have a soul in order for one's life to be significant seems to be that significance comes from uniting with God in a spiritual realm such as Heaven, a view espoused by Thomas Aquinas, Leo Tolstoy (1884), and contemporary religious thinkers (e.g., Craig 1994). Another possibility is that meaning comes from honoring what is divine within oneself, i.e., a soul (Swenson 1949).
As with God-based views, naturalist critics offer counterexamples to the claim that a soul or immortality of any kind is necessary for meaning. Great works, whether they be moral, aesthetic, or intellectual, would seem to confer meaning on one's life regardless of whether one will live forever. Critics maintain that soul-centered theorists are seeking too high a standard for appraising the meaning of people's lives (Baier 1957, 124–29; Baier 1997, chs. 4–5; Trisel 2002; Trisel 2004). Appeals to a soul require perfection, whether it be, as above, a perfect object to honor, a perfectly just reward to enjoy, or a perfect being with which to commune. However, if indeed soul-centered theory ultimately relies on claims about meaning turning on perfection, such a view is attractive at least for being simple, and rival views have yet to specify in a principled and thoroughly defended way where to draw the line at less than perfection (perhaps a start is Metz 2013, ch. 8). What less than ideal amount of value is sufficient for a life to count as meaningful?
Critics of soul-based views maintain not merely that immortality is not necessary for meaning in life, but also that it is sufficient for a meaningless life. One influential argument is that an immortal life, whether spiritual or physical, could not avoid becoming boring, rendering life pointless (Williams 1973; Ellin 1995, 311–12; Belshaw 2005, 82–91; Smuts 2011). The most common reply is that immortality need not get boring (Fischer 1994; Wisnewski 2005; Bortolotti and Nagasawa 2009; Chappell 2009; Quigley and Harris 2009, 75–78). However, it might also be worth questioning whether boredom is truly sufficient for meaninglessness. Suppose, for instance, that one volunteers to be bored so that many others will not be bored; perhaps this would be a meaningful sacrifice to make.
Another argument that being immortal would be sufficient to make our lives insignificant is that persons who cannot die could not exhibit certain virtues (Nussbaum 1989; Kass 2001). For instance, they could not promote justice of any important sort, be benevolent to any significant degree, or exhibit courage of any kind that matters, since life and death issues would not be at stake. Critics reply that even if these virtues would not be possible, there are other virtues that could be. And of course it is not obvious that meaning-conferring justice, benevolence and courage would not be possible if we were immortal, perhaps if we were not always aware that we could not die or if our indestructible souls could still be harmed by virtue of intense pain, frustrated ends, and repetitive lives.
There are other, related arguments maintaining that awareness of immortality would have the effect of removing meaning from life, say, because our lives would lack a sense of preciousness and urgency (Lenman 1995; Kass 2001; James 2009) or because external rather than internal factors would then dictate their course (Wollheim 1984, 266). Note that the target here is belief in an eternal afterlife, and not immortality itself, and so I merely mention these rationales (for additional, revealing criticism, see Bortolotti 2010).
I now address views that even if there is no spiritual realm, meaning in life is possible, at least for many people. Among those who believe that a significant existence can be had in a purely physical world as known by science, there is debate about two things: the extent to which the human mind constitutes meaning and whether there are conditions of meaning that are invariant among human beings.
Subjectivists believe that there are no invariant standards of meaning because meaning is relative to the subject, i.e., depends on an individual's pro-attitudes such as desires, ends, and choices. Roughly, something is meaningful for a person if she believes it to be or seeks it out. Objectivists maintain, in contrast, that there are some invariant standards for meaning because meaning is (at least partly) mind-independent, i.e., is a real property that exists regardless of being the object of anyone's mental states. Here, something is meaningful (to some degree) in virtue of its intrinsic nature, independent of whether it is believed to be meaningful or sought.
There is logical space for an intersubjective theory according to which there are invariant standards of meaning for human beings that are constituted by what they would all agree upon from a certain communal standpoint (Darwall 1983, chs. 11–12). However, this orthogonal approach is not much of a player in the field and so I set it aside in what follows.
According to this view, meaning in life varies from person to person, depending on each one's variable mental states. Common instances are views that one's life is more meaningful, the more one gets what one happens to want strongly, the more one achieves one's highly ranked goals, or the more one does what one believes to be really important (Trisel 2002; Hooker 2008; Alexis 2011). Lately, one influential subjectivist has maintained that the relevant mental state is caring or loving, so that life is meaningful just to the extent that one cares about or loves something (Frankfurt 1982, 2002, 2004).
Subjectivism was dominant for much of the 20th century when pragmatism, positivism, existentialism, noncognitivism, and Humeanism were quite influential (James 1900; Ayer 1947; Sartre 1948; Barnes 1967; Taylor 1970; Hare 1972; Williams 1976; Klemke 1981). However, in the last quarter of the 20th century, “reflective equilibrium” became a widely accepted argumentative procedure, whereby more controversial normative claims are justified by virtue of entailing and explaining less controversial normative claims that do not command universal acceptance. Such a method has been used to defend the existence of objective value, and, as a result, subjectivism about meaning has lost its dominance.
Those who continue to hold subjectivism often are suspicious of attempts to justify beliefs about objective value (e.g., Frankfurt 2002, 250; Trisel 2002, 73, 79, 2004, 378–79). Theorists are primarily moved to accept subjectivism because the alternatives are unpalatable; they are sure that value in general and meaning in particular exists, but do not see how it could be grounded in something independent of the mind, whether it be the natural, the non-natural, or the supernatural. In contrast to these possibilities, it appears straightforward to account for what is meaningful in terms of what people find meaningful or what people want out of life. Wide-ranging meta-ethical debates in epistemology, metaphysics, and the philosophy of language are necessary to address this rationale for subjectivism.
There are two other, more circumscribed arguments for subjectivism. One is that subjectivism is plausible since it is reasonable to think that a meaningful life is an authentic one (Frankfurt 1982). If a person's life is significant insofar as she is true to herself or her deepest nature, then we have some reason to believe that meaning simply is a function of satisfying certain desires held by the individual or realizing certain ends of hers. Another argument is that meaning intuitively comes from losing oneself, i.e., in becoming absorbed in an activity or experience (Frankfurt 1982). Work that concentrates the mind and relationships that are engrossing seem central to meaning and to be so because of the subjective element involved, that is, because of the concentration and engrossment.
However, critics maintain that both of these arguments are vulnerable to a common objection: they neglect the role of objective value both in realizing oneself and in losing oneself (Taylor 1992, esp. ch. 4). One is not really being true to oneself if one intentionally harms others (Dahl 1987, 12), successfully maintains 3,732 hairs on one's head (Taylor 1992, 36), or, well, eats one's own excrement (Wielenberg 2005, 22), and one is also not losing oneself in a meaning-conferring way if one is consumed by these activities. There seem to be certain actions, relationships, states, and experiences that one ought to concentrate on or be engrossed in, if meaning is to accrue.
So says the objectivist, but many subjectivists also feel the pull of the point. Paralleling replies in the literature on well-being, subjectivists often respond by contending that no or very few individuals would desire to do such intuitively trivial things, at least after a certain idealized process of reflection (e.g., Griffin 1981). More promising, perhaps, is the attempt to ground value not in the responses of an individual valuer, but in those of a particular group (Brogaard and Smith 2005; Wong 2008). Would such an intersubjective move avoid the counterexamples? If so, would it do so more plausibly than an objective theory?
Objective naturalists believe that meaning is constituted (at least in part) by something physical independent of the mind about which we can have correct or incorrect beliefs. Obtaining the object of some variable pro-attitude is not sufficient for meaning, on this view. Instead, there are certain inherently worthwhile or finally valuable conditions that confer meaning for anyone, neither merely because they are wanted, chosen, or believed to be meaningful, nor because they somehow are grounded in God.
Morality and creativity are widely held instances of actions that confer meaning on life, while trimming toenails and eating snow (and the other counterexamples to subjectivism above) are not. Objectivism is thought to be the best explanation for these respective kinds of judgments: the former are actions that are meaningful regardless of whether any arbitrary agent (whether it be an individual,her society, or even God) judges them to be meaningful or seeks to engage in them, while the latter actions simply lack significance and cannot obtain it if someone believes them to have it or engages in them. To obtain meaning in one's life, one ought to pursue the former actions and avoid the latter ones. Of course, meta-ethical debates about the nature of value are again relevant here.
A “pure” objectivist thinks that being the object of a person's mental states plays no role in making that person's life meaningful. Relatively few objectivists are pure, so construed. That is, a large majority of them believe that a life is more meaningful not merely because of objective factors, but also in part because of subjective ones such as cognition, affection, and emotion. Most commonly held is the hybrid view captured by Susan Wolf's pithy slogan: “Meaning arises when subjective attraction meets objective attractiveness” (Wolf 1997a, 211; see also Hepburn 1965; Kekes 1986, 2000; Wiggins 1988; Wolf 1997b, 2002, 2010; Dworkin 2000, ch. 6; Raz 2001, ch. 1; Schmidtz 2001; Starkey 2006; Mintoff 2008). This theory implies that no meaning accrues to one's life if one believes in, is satisfied by, or cares about a project that is not worthwhile, or if one takes up a worthwhile project but fails to judge it important, be satisfied by it, care about it or otherwise identify with it. Different versions of this theory will have different accounts of the appropriate mental states and of worthwhileness.
Pure objectivists deny that subjective attraction plays any constitutive role in conferring meaning on life. For instance, utilitarians with respect to meaning (as opposed to morality) are pure objectivists, for they claim that certain actions confer meaning on life regardless of the agent's reactions to them. On this view, the more one benefits others, the more meaningful one's life, regardless of whether one enjoys benefiting them, believes they should be aided, etc. (Singer 1993, ch. 12, 1995, chs. 10–11; Singer 1996, ch. 4). Midway between pure objectivism and the hybrid theory is the view that having certain propositional attitudes toward finally good activities would enhance the meaning of life without being necessary for it (Audi 2005, 344). For instance, might a Mother Teresa who is bored by her substantial charity work have a significant existence because of it, even if she would have an even more significant existence if she were excited by it?
There have been several attempts to theoretically capture what all objectively attractive, inherently worthwhile, or finally valuable conditions have in common insofar as they bear on meaning. Some believe that they can all be captured as actions that are creative (Taylor 1987), while others maintain that they are exhibit rightness or virtue and perhaps also involve reward proportionate to morality (Kant 1791, pt. 2; cf. Pogge 1997). Most objectivists, however, deem these respective aesthetic and ethical theories to be too narrow, even if living a moral life is necessary for a meaningful one (Landau 2011). It seems to most in the field not only that creativity and morality are independent sources of meaning, but also that there are sources in addition to these two. For just a few examples, consider making an intellectual discovery, rearing children with love, playing music, and developing superior athletic ability.
So, in the literature one finds a variety of principles that aim to capture all these and other (apparent) objective grounds of meaning. One can read the perfectionist tradition as proffering objective theories of what a significant existence is, even if their proponents do not frequently use contemporary terminology to express this. Consider Aristotle's account of the good life for a human being as one that fulfills its natural purpose qua rational, Marx's vision of a distinctly human history characterized by less alienation and more autonomy, culture, and community, and Nietzsche's ideal of a being with a superlative degree of power, creativity, and complexity.
More recently, some have maintained that objectively meaningful conditions are just those that involve: transcending the limits of the self to connect with organic unity (Nozick 1981, ch. 6, 1989, chs. 15–16); realizing human excellence in oneself (Bond 1983, chs. 6, 8); maximally promoting non-hedonist goods such as friendship, beauty, and knowledge (Railton 1984); exercising or promoting rational nature in exceptional ways (Hurka 1993; Smith 1997, 179–221; Gewirth 1998, ch. 5); substantially improving the quality of life of people and animals (Singer 1993, ch. 12, 1995, chs. 10–11; Singer 1996, ch. 4); overcoming challenges that one recognizes to be important at one's stage of history (Dworkin 2000, ch. 6); constituting rewarding experiences in the life of the agent or the lives of others the agent affects (Audi 2005); making progress toward ends that in principle can never be completely realized because one's knowledge of them changes as one approaches them (Levy 2005); realizing goals that are transcendent for being long-lasting in duration and broad in scope (Mintoff 2008); or contouring intelligence toward fundamental conditions of human life (Metz 2013).
One major test of these theories is whether they capture all experiences, states, relationships, and actions that intuitively make life meaningful. The more counterexamples of apparently meaningful conditions that a principle entails lack meaning, the less justified the principle. There is as yet no convergence in the field on any one principle or even cluster as accounting for commonsensical judgments about meaning to an adequate, convincing degree. Indeed, some believe the search for such a principle to be pointless (Wolf 1997b, 12–13; Kekes 2000; Schmidtz 2001). Are these pluralists correct, or does the field have a good chance of discovering a single, basic property that grounds all the particular ways to acquire meaning in life?
Another important way to criticize these theories is more comprehensive: for all that has been said so far, the objective theories are aggregative or additive, objectionably reducing life to a “container” of meaningful conditions (Brännmark 2003, 330). As with the growth of “organic unity” views in the context of debates about intrinsic value, it is becoming common to think that life as a whole (or at least long stretches of it) can substantially affect its meaning apart from the amount of meaning in its parts.
For instance, a life that has lots of beneficent and otherwise intuitively meaning-conferring conditions but that is also extremely repetitive (à la the movie Groundhog Day) is less than maximally meaningful (Taylor 1987). Furthermore, a life that not only avoids repetition but also ends with a substantial amount of meaningful parts seems to have more meaning overall than one that has the same amount of meaningful parts but ends with few or none of them (Kamm 2003, 210–14). And a life in which its meaningless parts cause its meaningful parts to come about through a process of personal growth seems meaningful in virtue of this causal pattern or being a “good life-story” (Velleman 1991; Fischer 2005).
Extreme versions of holism are also present in the literature. For example, some maintain that the only bearer of final value is life as a whole, which entails that there are strictly speaking no parts or segments of a life that can be meaningful in themselves (Tabensky 2003; Levinson 2004). For another example, some accept that both parts of a life and a life as a whole can be independent bearers of meaning, but maintain that the latter has something like a lexical priority over the former when it comes to what to pursue or otherwise to prize (Blumenfeld 2009).
What are the ultimate bearers of meaning? What are all the fundamentally different ways (if any) that holism can affect meaning? Are they all a function of narrativity, life-stories, and artistic self-expression (as per Kauppinen 2012), or are there holistic facets of life's meaning that are not a matter of such literary concepts? How much importance should they be accorded by an agent seeking meaning in her life?
So far, I have addressed theoretical accounts that have been naturally understood to be about what confers meaning on life, which obviously assumes that some lives are in fact meaningful. However, there are nihilistic perspectives that question this assumption. According to nihilism (or pessimism), what would make a life meaningful either cannot obtain or as a matter of fact simply never does.
One straightforward rationale for nihilism is the combination of supernaturalism about what makes life meaningful and atheism about whether God exists. If you believe that God or a soul is necessary for meaning in life, and if you believe that neither exists, then you are a nihilist, someone who denies that life has meaning. Albert Camus is famous for expressing this kind of perspective, suggesting that the lack of an afterlife and of a rational, divinely ordered universe undercuts the possibility of meaning (Camus 1955; cf. Ecclesiastes).
Interestingly, the most common rationales for nihilism these days do not appeal to supernaturalism. The idea shared among many contemporary nihilists is that there is something inherent to the human condition that prevents meaning from arising, even granting that God exists. For instance, some nihilists make the Schopenhauerian claim that our lives lack meaning because we are invariably dissatisfied; either we have not yet obtained what we seek, or we have obtained it and are bored (Martin 1993). Critics tend to reply that at least a number of human lives do have the requisite amount of satisfaction required for meaning, supposing that some is (Blackburn 2001, 74–77).
Other nihilists claim that life would be meaningless if there were no invariant moral rules that could be fully justified—the world would be nonsensical if, in (allegedly) Dostoyevskian terms, “everything were permitted”—and that such rules cannot exist for persons who can always reasonably question a given claim (Murphy 1982, ch. 1). While a number of philosophers agree that a universally binding and warranted morality is necessary for meaning in life (Kant 1791; Tännsjö 1988; Jacquette 2001, ch. 1; Cottingham 2003, 2005, ch. 3), some do not (Margolis 1990; Ellin 1995, 325–27). Furthermore, contemporary rationalist and realist work in meta-ethics has led many to believe that such a moral system exists.
In the past 10 years, some interesting new defences of nihilism have arisen that merit careful consideration. According to one rationale, for our lives to matter, we must in a position to add value to the world, which we are not since the value of the world is already infinite (Smith 2003). The key premises for this view are that every bit of space-time (or at least the stars in the physical universe) have some positive value, that these values can be added up, and that space is infinite. If the physical world at present contains an infinite degree of value, nothing we do can make a difference in terms of meaning, for infinity plus any amount of value must be infinity.
One way to question this argument is to suggest that even if one cannot add to the value of the universe, meaning plausibly obtains merely by being the source of value. Consider that one does not merely want one's child to be reared with love, but wants to be the one who rears one's child with love. And this desire remains even knowing that others would have reared one's child with love in one's absence, so that one's actions are not increasing the goodness of the state of the universe relative to what it would have had without them. Similar remarks might apply to cases of meaning more generally (for additional, and technical, discussion of whether an infinite universe entails nihilism, see Almeida 2010; Vohánka and Vohánková n.d.).
Another fresh argument for nihilism is forthcoming from certain defenses of anti-natalism, the view that it is immoral to bring new people into existence because doing so would be a harm to them. There are now a variety of rationales for anti-natalism, but most relevant to debates about whether life is meaningful is probably the following argument from David Benatar (2006, 18–59). According to him, the bads of existing (e.g., pains) are real disadvantages relative to not existing, while the goods of existing (pleasures) are not real advantages relative to not existing, since there is in the latter state no one to be deprived of them. If indeed the state of not existing is no worse than that of experiencing the benefits of existence, then, since existing invariably brings harm in its wake, existing is always a net harm compared to not existing. Although this argument is about goods such as pleasures in the first instance, it seems generalizable to non-experiential goods, including that of meaning in life.
The criticisms of Benatar that promise to cut most deep are those that question his rationale for the above judgments of good and bad. He maintains that these appraisals best explain, e.g., why it would be wrong for one to create someone whom one knows would suffer a torturous existence, and why it would not be wrong for one not to create someone whom one knows would enjoy a wonderful existence. The former would be wrong and the latter would not be wrong, for Benatar, because no pain in non-existence is better than pain in existence, and because no pleasure in non-existence is no worse than pleasure in existence. Critics usually grant the judgments of wrongness, but provide explanations of them that do not invoke Benatar's judgments of good and bad that apparently lead to anti-natalism (e.g., Boonin 2012; Weinberg 2012).
This survey closes by discussing the most well-known rationale for nihilism, namely, Thomas Nagel's (1986) invocation of the external standpoint that purportedly reveals our lives to be unimportant (see also Hanfling 1987, 22–24; Benatar 2006, 60–92; cf. Dworkin 2000, ch. 6). According to Nagel, we are capable of comprehending the world from a variety of standpoints that are either internal or external. The most internal perspective would be a particular human being's desire at a given instant, with a somewhat less internal perspective being one's interests over a life-time, and an even less internal perspective being the interests of one's family or community. In contrast, the most external perspective, an encompassing standpoint utterly independent of one's particularity, would be, to use Henry Sidgwick's phrase, the “point of view of the universe,” that is, the standpoint that considers the interests of all sentient beings at all times and in all places. When one takes up this most external standpoint and views one's finite—and even downright puny—impact on the world, little of one's life appears to matter. What one does in a certain society on Earth over an approximately 75 years just does not amount to much, when considering the billions of years and likely trillions of beings that are a part of space-time.
Very few accept the authority of the (most) external standpoint (Ellin 1995, 316–17; Blackburn 2001, 79–80; Schmidtz 2001) or the implications that Nagel believes it has for the meaning of our lives (Quinn 2000, 65–66; Singer 1993, 333–34; Wolf 1997b, 19–21). However, the field could use much more discussion of this rationale, given its persistence in human thought. It is plausible to think, with Nagel, that part of what it is to be a person is to be able to take up an external standpoint. However, what precisely is a standpoint? Must we invariably adopt one standpoint or the other, or is it possible not to take one up at all? Is there a reliable way to ascertain which standpoint is normatively more authoritative than others? These and the other questions posed in this survey still lack conclusive answers, another respect in which the field of life's meaning is tantalizingly open for substantial contributions.
- Affolter, J., 2007, “Human Nature as God's Purpose”, Religious Studies, 43: 443–55.
- Alexis., A., 2011, The Meaning of Life: A Modern Secular Answer to the Age-Old Fundamental Question, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
- Almeida, M., 2010, “Two Challenges to Moral Nihilism”, The Monist, 93: 96–105.
- Audi, R., 2005, “Intrinsic Value and Meaningful Life”, Philosophical Papers, 34: 331–55.
- Ayer, A. J., 1947, “The Claims of Philosophy”, repr. in The Meaning of Life, 2nd Ed., E. D. Klemke (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 2000: 219–32.
- Baier, K., 1957, “The Meaning of Life”, repr. in The Meaning of Life, 2nd Ed., E. D. Klemke (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 2000: 101–32.
- –––, 1997, Problems of Life and Death: A Humanist Perspective, Amherst: Prometheus Books.
- Barnes, H., 1967, An Existentialist Ethics, New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
- Belshaw, C., 2005, 10 Good Questions about Life and Death, Malden, MA: Blackwell.
- Benatar, D., 2006, Better Never to Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Blackburn, S., 2001, Being Good, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Blumenfeld, D., 2009, “Living Life Over Again”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 79: 357–86.
- Bond, E. J., 1983, Reason and Value, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Boonin, D., 2012, “Better to Be”, South African Journal of Philosophy, 31: 10–25.
- Bortolotti, L., 2010, “Agency, Life Extension, and the Meaning of Life”, The Monist, 92: 38–56.
- Bortolotti, L. and Nagasawa, Y., 2009, “Immortality Without Boredom”, Ratio, 22: 261–77.
- Brännmark, J., 2003, “Leading Lives”, Philosophical Papers, 32: 321–43.
- Britton, K., 1969, Philosophy and the Meaning of Life, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Brogaard, B. and Smith, B., 2005, “On Luck, Responsibility, and the Meaning of Life”, Philosophical Papers, 34: 443–58.
- Brown, D., 1971, “Process Philosophy and the Question of Life's Meaning”, Religious Studies, 7: 13–29.
- Camus, A., 1955, The Myth of Sisyphus, J. O'Brian (tr.), London: H. Hamilton.
- Chappell, T., 2009, “Infinity Goes Up on Trial: Must Immortality Be Meaningless?”, European Journal of Philosophy, 17: 30–44.
- Cooper, D., 2005, “Life and Meaning”, Ratio, 18: 125–37.
- Cottingham, J., 2003, On the Meaning of Life, London: Routledge.
- –––, 2005, The Spiritual Dimension: Religion, Philosophy and Human Value, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Craig, W., 1994, “The Absurdity of Life Without God”, repr. in The Meaning of Life, 2nd Ed., E. D. Klemke (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 2000: 40–56.
- Dahl, N., 1987, “Morality and the Meaning of Life”, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 17: 1–22.
- Darwall, S., 1983, Impartial Reason, Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
- Davis, W., 1986, “The Creation of Meaning”, Philosophy Today, 30: 151–67.
- –––, 1987, “The Meaning of Life”, Metaphilosophy, 18: 288–305.
- Dworkin, R., 2000, Sovereign Virtue, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Edwards, P., 1972, “Why”, in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Volumes 7– 8, P. Edwards (ed.), New York: Macmillan Publishing Company: 296–302.
- Ellin, J., 1995. Morality and the Meaning of Life, Ft. Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.
- Feinberg, J., 1980, “Absurd Self-Fulfillment,” repr. in Freedom and Fulfillment: Philosophical Essays, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992: 297–330.
- Fischer, J. M., 1994, “Why Immortality is Not So Bad”, International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 2: 257–70.
- –––, 2005, “Free Will, Death, and Immortality: The Role of Narrative”, Philosophical Papers, 34: 379–403.
- Flanagan, O., 1996, Self-Expressions: Mind, Morals, and the Meaning of Life, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Frankfurt, H., 1982, “The Importance of What We Care About”, Synthese, 53: 257–72.
- –––, 2002, “Reply to Susan Wolf”, in The Contours of Agency: Essays on Themes from Harry Frankfurt, S. Buss and L. Overton (eds.), Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press: 245–52.
- –––, 2004, The Reasons of Love, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Gewirth, A., 1998, Self-Fulfillment, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Goetz, S., 2012, The Purpose of Life: A Theistic Perspective, New York: Continuum.
- Gordon, J., 1983, “Is the Existence of God Relevant to the Meaning of Life?” The Modern Schoolman, 60: 227–46.
- Griffin, J., 1981, “On Life's Being Valuable”, Dialectics and Humanism, 8: 51–62.
- Haber, J., 1997, “Contingency and the Meaning of Life”, Philosophical Writings, 5: 32–44.
- Hanfling, O., 1987, The Quest for Meaning, New York: Basil Blackwell Inc.
- Hare, R. M., 1957, “Nothing Matters”, repr. in Applications of Moral Philosophy, London: Macmillan, 1972: 32–47.
- Hartshorne, C., 1984, “God and the Meaning of Life”, in Boston University Studies in Philosophy and Religion, Volume 6: On Nature, L. Rouner (ed.), Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press: 154–68.
- –––, 1996, “The Meaning of Life”, Process Studies, 25: 10–18.
- Hepburn, R., 1965, “Questions About the Meaning of Life”, repr. in The Meaning of Life, 2nd Ed., E. D. Klemke (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 2000: 261–76.
- Hooker, B., 2008, “The Meaning of Life: Subjectivism, Objectivism, and Divine Support”, in The Moral Life: Essays in Honour of John Cottingham, N. Athanassoulis and S. Vice (eds.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan: 184–200.
- Hurka, T., 1993, Perfectionism, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Jacquette, D., 2001, Six Philosophical Appetizers, Boston: McGraw-Hill.
- James, L., 2005, “Achievement and the Meaningfulness of Life”, Philosophical Papers, 34: 429–42.
- –––, 2009, “Shape and the Meaningfulness of Life”, in Philosophy and Happiness, L. Bortolotti (ed.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan: 54–67.
- James, W., 1900, “What Makes a Life Significant?”, in On Some of Life's Ideals, New York: Henry Holt and Company: 49–94.
- Kamm, F. M., 2003, “Rescuing Ivan Ilych: How We Live and How We Die”, Ethics, 113: 202–33.
- Kant, I., 1791, Critique of Judgment.
- Kass, L., 2001, “L'Chaim and Its Limits: Why not Immortality?”, First Things, 113: 17–24.
- Kauppinen, A., 2012, “Meaningfulness and Time”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 82: 345–77.
- Kekes, J., 1986, “The Informed Will and the Meaning of Life”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 47: 75–90.
- –––, 2000, “The Meaning of Life”, in Midwest Studies in Philosophy, Volume 24; Life and Death: Metaphysics and Ethics, P. French and H. Wettstein (eds.), Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers: 17–34.
- Klemke, E. D., 1981, “Living Without Appeal”, in The Meaning of Life, E. D. Klemke (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press.
- Landau, I., 2011, “Immorality and the Meaning of Life”, The Journal of Value Inquiry, 45: 309–17.
- Lenman, J., 1995, “Immortality: A Letter”, Cogito, 9: 164–69.
- Levine, M., 1987, “What Does Death Have to Do with the Meaning of Life?” Religious Studies, 23: 457–65.
- Levinson, J., 2004, “Intrinsic Value and the Notion of a Life”, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 62: 319–29.
- Levy, N., 2005, “Downshifting and Meaning in Life”, Ratio, 18: 176–89.
- Margolis, J., 1990, “Moral Realism and the Meaning of Life”, The Philosophical Forum, 22: 19–48.
- Markus, A., 2003, “Assessing Views of Life, A Subjective Affair?”, Religious Studies, 39: 125–43.
- Martin, R., 1993, “A Fast Car and a Good Woman”, in The Experience of Philosophy, 2nd Ed., D. Kolak and R. Martin (eds.), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company: 589–95.
- Mawson, T., 2010, “Sources of Dissatisfaction with Answers to the Question of the Meaning of Life”, European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 2: 19–41.
- Metz, T., 2012, “The Meaningful and the Worthwhile: Clarifying the Relationships”, The Philosophical Forum, 43: 435–48.
- –––, 2013, Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Mintoff, J., 2008, “Transcending Absurdity”, Ratio, 21: 64–84.
- Moreland, J. P., 1987, Scaling the Secular City: A Defense of Christianity, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House.
- Morris, T., 1992, Making Sense of It All: Pascal and the Meaning of Life, Grand Rapids: Willliam B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
- Munitz, M., 1986, Cosmic Understanding, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Murphy, J., 1982, Evolution, Morality, and the Meaning of Life, Totowa: Rowman and Littlefield.
- Nagel, T., 1970, “The Absurd”, Journal of Philosophy, 68: 716–27.
- –––, 1986, The View from Nowhere, New York: Oxford University Press.
- Nielsen, K., 1964, “Linguistic Philosophy and ‘The Meaning of Life’”, rev. ed. in The Meaning of Life, E. D. Klemke (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 1981: 177–204.
- Nozick, R., 1974, Anarchy, State and Utopia, New York: Basic Books.
- –––, 1981, Philosophical Explanations, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- –––, 1989, The Examined Life, New York: Simon & Schuster.
- Nussbaum, M., 1989, “Mortal Immortals: Lucretius on Death and the Voice of Nature”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 50: 303–51.
- Oakley, T., 2010, “The Issue is Meaninglessness”, The Monist, 93: 106–22.
- Perrett, R., 1986, “Regarding Immortality”, Religious Studies, 22: 219–33.
- Pogge, T., 1997, “Kant on Ends and the Meaning of Life”, in Reclaiming the History of Ethics: Essays for John Rawls, A. Reath et al. (eds.), New York: Cambridge University Press: 361–87.
- Quigley, M. and Harris, J., 2009, “Immortal Happiness”, in Philosophy and Happiness, L. Bortolotti (ed.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan: 68–81.
- Quinn, P., 2000, “How Christianity Secures Life's Meanings”, in The Meaning of Life in the World Religions, J. Runzo and N. Martin (eds.), Oxford: Oneworld Publications: 53–68.
- Railton, P., 1984, “Alienation, Consequentialism, and the Demands of Morality”, repr. in Consequentialism and Its Critics, S. Scheffler (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 1988: 93–133.
- Raz, J., 2001, Value, Respect, and Attachment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Sartre, J.-P., 1948, Existentialism is a Humanism, P. Mairet (tr.), London: Methuen & Co.
- Schmidtz, D., 2001, “The Meanings of Life”, in Boston University Studies in Philosophy and Religion, Volume 22; If I Should Die: Life, Death, and Immortality, L. Rouner (ed.), Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press: 170–88.
- Seachris, J., 2009, “The Meaning of Life as Narrative: A New Proposal for Interpreting Philosophy's ‘Primary’ Question”, Philo, 12: 5–23.
- Singer, I., 1996, Meaning in Life, Volume 1: The Creation of Value, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Singer, P., 1993, Practical Ethics, 2nd Ed., New York: Cambridge University Press.
- –––, 1995, How are We to Live? Amherst, MA: Prometheus Books.
- Smith, Q., 1997, Ethical and Religious Thought in Analytic Philosophy of Language, New Haven: Yale University Press.
- –––, 2003, “Moral Realism and Infinite Spacetime Imply Moral Nihilism”, in Time and Ethics: Essays at the Intersection, H. Dyke (ed.), Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers: 43–54.
- Smuts, A., 2011, “Immortality and Significance”, Philosophy and Literature, 35: 134–49.
- Starkey, C., 2006, “Meaning and Affect”, The Pluralist, 1: 88–103.
- Swenson, D., 1949, “The Dignity of Human Life”, repr. in The Meaning of Life, 2nd Ed., E. D. Klemke (ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, 2000: 21–30.
- Tabensky, P., 2003, “Parallels Between Living and Painting”, The Journal of Value Inquiry, 37: 59–68.
- Tännsjö, T., 1988, “The Moral Significance of Moral Realism”, The Southern Journal of Philosophy, 26: 247–61.
- Taylor, C., 1989, Sources of the Self, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- –––, 1992, The Ethics of Authenticity, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Taylor, R., 1970, Good and Evil, New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.
- –––, 1987, “Time and Life's Meaning”, The Review of Metaphysics, 40: 675–86.
- Thomas, L., 2005, “Morality and a Meaningful Life”, Philosophical Papers, 34: 405–27.
- Thomson, G., 2003, On the Meaning of Life, South Melbourne: Wadsworth.
- Tolstoy, L., 1884, A Confession.
- Trisel, B. A., 2002, “Futility and the Meaning of Life Debate”, Sorites, 70–84.
- –––, 2004, “Human Extinction and the Value of Our Efforts”, The Philosophical Forum, 35: 371–91.
- –––, 2012, “Intended and Unintended Life”, The Philosophical Forum, 43: 395–403.
- Velleman, J. D., 1991, “Well-Being and Time”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 72: 48–77.
- Velleman, J. D., 2005, “Family History”, Philosophical Papers, 34: 357–78.
- Walker, L., 1989, “Religion and the Meaning of Life and Death”, in Philosophy: The Quest for Truth, L. Pojman (ed.), Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co: 167–71.
- Weinberg, R., 2012, “Is Having Children Always Wrong?”, South African Journal of Philosophy, 31: 26–37.
- Wielenberg, E., 2005, Value and Virtue in a Godless Universe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Wiggins, D., 1988, “Truth, Invention, and the Meaning of Life”, rev. ed. in Essays on Moral Realism, G. Sayre-McCord (ed.), Ithaca: Cornell University Press: 127-65.
- Williams, B., 1973, “The Makropulos Case: Reflections on the Tedium of Immortality”, in Problems of the Self, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 82–100.
- –––, 1976, “Persons, Character and Morality”, in The Identities of Persons, A. O. Rorty (ed.), Berkeley: University of California Press: 197–216.
- Williams, G., 1999, “Kant and the Question of Meaning”, The Philosophical Forum, 30: 115–31.
- Wisnewski, J. J., 2005, “Is the Immortal Life Worth Living?”, International Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 58: 27–36.
- Wohlgennant, R., 1981, “Has the Question About the Meaning of Life Any Meaning?” repr. in Life and Meaning: A Reader, O. Hanfling (ed.), Cambridge: Basic Blackwell Inc., 1987: 34–38.
- Wolf, S., 1997a, “Happiness and Meaning: Two Aspects of the Good Life”, Social Philosophy and Policy, 14: 207–25.
- –––, 1997b, “Meaningful Lives in a Meaningless World”, Quaestiones Infinitae, Volume 19, Utrecht: Utrecht University: 1–22.
- –––, 2002, “The True, the Good, and the Lovable: Frankfurt's Avoidance of Objectivity”, in The Contours of Agency: Essays on Themes from Harry Frankfurt, S. Buss and L. Overton (eds.), Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press: 227–44.
- –––, 2010, Meaning in Life and Why It Matters, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Wollheim, R., 1984, The Thread of Life, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Wong, W., 2008, “Meaningfulness and Identities”, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 11: 123–48.
- Benatar, D. (ed.), 2004, Life, Death & Meaning, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
- Cottingham, J. (ed.), 2007, Western Philosophy: An Anthology, Oxford: Blackwell: pt. 12.
- Hanfling, O. (ed.), 1987, Life and Meaning: A Reader, Cambridge: Basic Blackwell Inc.
- Klemke, E. D. and Cahn, S. M. (eds.), 2007, The Meaning of Life: A Reader, 3rd Ed., New York: Oxford University Press.
- Metz, T. (ed.), 2005, Special Issue: Meaning in Life, Philosophical Papers, 34: 330–463.
- Runzo, J. and Martin, N. (eds.), 2000, The Meaning of Life in the World Religions, Oxford: Oneworld Publications.
- Sanders, S. and Cheney, D. (eds.), 1980, The Meaning of Life: Questions, Answers, and Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
- Seachris, J. (ed.), 2012, Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
- Smith, Q. (ed.), 2010, Special Issue: The Meaning of Life, The Monist, 93: 3–165.
- Westphal, J. and Levenson, C. A. (eds.), 1993, Life and Death, Indianapolis: Hackett.
Books for the General Reader
- Baggini, J., 2004, What's It All About?: Philosophy and the Meaning of Life, London: Granta Books.
- Belliotti, R., 2001, What Is the Meaning of Life?, Amsterdam: Rodopi.
- Belshaw, C., 2005, 10 Good Questions about Life and Death, Malden, MA: Blackwell.
- Cottingham, J., 2003, On the Meaning of Life, London: Routledge.
- Eagleton, T., 2007, The Meaning of Life: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ford, D., 2007, The Search for Meaning: A Short History, Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Martin, M., 2002, Atheism, Morality, and Meaning, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
- Messerly, J., 2012, The Meaning of Life: Religious, Philosophical, Transhumanist, and Scientific Approaches, Seattle: Darwin and Hume Publishers.
- Thomson, G., 2003, On the Meaning of Life, South Melbourne: Wadsworth.
- Young, J., 2003, The Death of God and the Meaning of Life, New York: Routledge.
Other Internet Resources
- Seachris, J., 2011, “Meaning of Life: The Analytic Perspective”, in Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, J. Fieser and B. Dowden (eds.)
- Vohánka, V. and Vohánková, P., n.d., “On Nihilism Driven by the Magnitude of the Universe”.