Following the summer’s Ashes triumph and with the UK hosting the Rugby World Cup, we look at how sport can help further the UK’s international influence
This autumn’s Rugby World Cup continues a great era of international sporting events in the UK, including the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics and the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games.
The real strength of UK sport
Research has suggested that as many as 10% of the world’s population support Manchester United
The UK is also home to some of the world’s most iconic sporting stars and venues, from David Beckham to Jessica Ennis-Hill and from Lords to Wimbledon. UK sporting competitions also generate huge global audiences. The Premier League alone is watched by 4.7 billion people and is one of the UK’s most successful exports. Research has suggested that as many as 10% of the world’s population support Manchester United, including 100 million people in China – more than are members of the Communist Party. In Burma Premier League rights were among the earliest cultural engagement when sanctions were lifted.
As well as the familiar benefits of sport at home, this global following presents important opportunities for the UK and chimes with a growing interest in ‘sports diplomacy’.
Why sport matters
Research by Kings College London into major sporting events has found that their popularity provides a powerful means of showcasing a nation’s achievements and values and its ability to manage major projects. The London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics – which was watched by more than 50% of the world’s population –– generated a substantial boost in international interest in the UK through the impressive medal haul and Danny Boyle’s dazzling opening ceremony. Results from research in eleven strategically important countries for UK foreign policy and trade showed that on average 36% of people stated that the Games had made the UK more attractive as a place to study or do business, and 35% were more likely to visit the UK. The events also facilitated broader cultural programmes, such as the Cultural Olympiad and the ‘UK Now’ programme in China (the biggest ever celebration of UK arts and culture in that country). As the British Ambassador to China said following the Games: ‘The Olympic opening ceremony and the UK Pavilion at the Shanghai Expo, together with a big UK arts festival last year and some GREAT Britain campaign events, have helped move the dial on perceptions of the UK brand. Many Chinese people now associate us strongly with creativity as well as tradition and 'English gentlemen'. The success of the Paralympic Games also helped change attitudes towards disabled people around the world.
In the digital and globalised age, one of the increasingly effective ways of developing influence for a country is via direct contact between people of the sort that sport encourages. Sport can build camaraderie between people who might otherwise never meet, be they competitors in sports tournaments, international visitors to the Rugby World Cup or young people from different countries discussing the latest Wayne Rooney goal online. It brings people from diverse countries and backgrounds together – witness the make-up of any UK Premier League football team, or the fact that many young people idolise overseas sports stars as much as those from their own country.
How sport can help
Community sporting programmes can also be immensely powerful in supporting development and promoting the UK’s influence. From the favelas of Brazil to the cities of China, international sporting programmes from the UK – including British Council rugby and football projects – have given hope, inspiration and life skills to young people across the world.
Try Rugby is a programme developed by the British Council with Premiership Rugby. It uses rugby coaching to engage with young people, helping tackle health, education and social issues in a growing range of countries. It also generates good will and influence for the UK. In Brazil the programme is capitalising on the interest in the game generated by the 2016 Olympics, which will for the first time feature Rugby Sevens.
Premier Skills is a partnership between the English Premier League and the British Council to train football coaches. In eight years it has reached some 500,000 people across 25 countries. It has become a tool for international development, promoting inclusion, rights, role models and people-to-people engagement, as well as tackling specific issues like violence against girls. Programmes of this type also help the UK be seen as a dynamic country and to build future long term economic opportunities, e.g. via training provision, promotion and the marketing of UK sports industry services. Last month it was announced Premier Skills would be expanded further in China. This will help to position the UK as partner of choice as China undertakes a massive campaign to promote football and sport as part of its drive towards consumer-led growth.
Recent research for the British Council by the Youth Sports Trust also showed evidence that sport promoted inclusion, diversity, community cohesion and women’s rights. For example, the London 2012 Olympic legacy programme ‘International Inspiration ’, run by the British Council with UNICEF, UK Sport and the Youth Sport Trust, trained girls around the world as peer leaders to help change attitudes towards gender equality through sports events. The programme reached over 15 million young people in 21 countries and inspired 55 significant national policy changes, including increasing sport on school curricula in 19 countries.
In 1969 Honduras and El Salvador even fought the so-called ‘Football War’, after some violent World Cup football matches
Sport programmes can create positive pathways for young people, giving skills, confidence, and self-respect. Sport generates role models, meaning, identification and status. It reduces violence and promotes community cohesion, as well as having direct economic benefits. It can therefore play an influential role in places affected by instability or extremism.
Of course sport is not always a force for good. It has been blighted by drugs, cheating, and hooliganism. In 1969 Honduras and El Salvador even fought the so-called ‘Football War’, after some violent World Cup football matches. Yet as a safe outlet for passions, aggression and tribalism, it is more often a positive force. In that sense sport is perhaps better seen as a continuation of foreign policy by other means – as Orwell said: ‘War minus the shooting’.
War minus the shooting
Sport, then, can deliver international development, education and influence. Yet these benefits are not yet sufficiently recognised or supported in mainstream public policy. The Sport White Paper that the Department for Culture, Media and Sport is currently preparing offers one opportunity for these positives to receive deserved attention. Further study of the growing evidence for what UK sport is contributing to people’s lives around the world and how it supports the UK’s global standing can only help it achieve more in the future.
As Bill Shankly famously said of football, but perhaps could equally be applied to the international role of all sports: 'Some people believe [it] is a matter of life and death… I can assure you it is much, much more important than that.'
John Dubber, Head of Policy and External Relations and John Worne, Kings College London.
Alasdair Donaldson, Editor
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“Perhaps the post-colonial moment has passed.” This is how political scientist, Crawford Young, summed up his seminal essay that fretted “The end of the post-colonial state in Africa,” eroded by “the complex web of novel civil conflicts” in the 1990s, the rise of informal politics involving local societies and diminished role in service provision (African Affairs, 2004).
In a blissful sense, and in contrast to Young’s forlorn narrative, the recently concluded 14th Tokyo International Conference on African Development (Ticad) in Nairobi heralds the end of the thinking, cultural legacies and economic burdens which have defined Africa’s role in global geopolitics.
More than any other country in Africa, Kenya signifies the demise of the post-colonial order in Africa. This process started in the wake of the new Constitution in 2010 but more effectively with the rise of Kenya’s assertive foreign policy after Uhuru Kenyatta assumed power.
Two interlinked factors have sounded the death knell for the post-colonial order in Kenya.
The first is what the Kenyan academic, Bob Wekesa, recently celebrated as the country’s “soft power opportunity” (African Executive, July 19, 2016).
Wekesa alerted us to the openings that the UNCTAD 14 conference from July 17-22, 2016 presented in boosting Kenya’s soft power capital, famously theorised by the Harvard Professor, Joseph Nye, as the capacity to influence others through attraction or persuasion rather than coercion. In the post-Cold War era, soft power in Africa, as elsewhere, is linked to globalisation and regional integration.
In the past, Kenya has enhanced its soft power capital through peace mediations from Congo (1960s) to Uganda (1980s) to Somalia and Sudan in the new millennium. It is also a world leader in peacekeeping.
Second, Kenya has recently enhanced its “soft power hegemony” through its economic diplomacy, defined as the strategic use of wide-ranging economic tools and opportunities available to the state to achieve its national interest.
Since 2013, Kenya has projected its soft power through economic diplomacy, in turn, transforming the country into ‘a global soft power’.
There was the overt threat of diplomatic isolation and possible economic sanctions by Kenya’s traditional allies over the International Criminal Court cases facing the President and his Deputy relating to the 2008 violence. Upon election in March 2013 Kenyatta adopted economic diplomacy as a way of pursuing Kenya’s national interests in a hostile world. He created the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Trade as the instrument of his new economic diplomacy approach.
Economic diplomacy has taken three forms. First, Kenyatta and his deputy intensified trips to friendly countries and strategic events to mobilise development resources and economic opportunities. According to a recent study by the research company, East African Index (September, 2016), between April 2013 when Kenyatta assumed office and August 2016, he has made 56 trips covering 40 countries, ridiculed by opposition pundits as “tourist president.”
One of the most recent defences of Kenya’s investment in economic diplomacy is by Kenyan entrepreneur Chris Kirubi in an article titled: “Benefits of Kenyatta’s travel clear to all,” which traces Kenya’s odyssey from near “state failure” after the 2008 post-election violence to the triumph signified by the 10th WTO, UNCTAD 14 and TICAD IV conferences.
Second, and related to above, Kenyatta’s trips abroad have not only expanded Kenya’s access to global markets, technology and attracted foreign investors in a spectrum of areas, but also attracted a flurry of high-profile conferences and visits by influential leaders.
In July 2015, Kenya hosted the President of America, the world’s most powerful nation. Trade and investment deals were signed during the Global Entrepreneurship Summit (GES) held in Nairobi. Kenya closed last year by hosting the 10th WTO Ministerial Conference in December, which rekindled hopes of a new global trade deal.
In 2016, Kenyatta hosted Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, whose country agreed to help set up a cancer hospital, provide tele-cobalt machines for cancer treatment and support to Kenya’s agricultural and energy sectors.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu also visited Kenya in early July where he promised to provide intelligence support to combat violent extremism. His entourage of more than 70 business leaders struck deals worth KSh2 billion with the Kenya Chamber of Commerce.
And the TICAD summit in August brought 36 heads of state to Kenya, including the Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, who led a huge delegation of over 80 officials of Japanese companies. Nairobi was the first city outside Japan to host the sixth TICAD summit, which has in the past been held in Tokyo or Yokohama.
Third, Kenya has deepened its diplomacy and investment in regional and global multilateral institutions. In 2015, Forbes listed Kenya among the top 10 countries contributing the most to the United Nations, the only African country in this league of champions of global multilateralism, including President Barack Obama’s United States, India, Switzerland, France and the United Kingdom. Last year, Kenya contributed $445 million to the United Nations.
The top contributor is the US, which gave $1,277 million to the world body, followed by India with $800 million.
The economic benefits of economic diplomacy are clear. Kenyatta came from his trip to China on August 19–24, 2014 with concrete funding of the Standard Gauge Railway estimated to cost $3.8 billion.
In 2013, Japan’s Toyota Kenya opened an assembly plant in Mombasa worth Sh500 million while Honda Motorcycles Kenya Limited opened a motorcycle assembly plant estimated at Sh450 million.
Sixteen international hotels are expected to open doors in 2016 alone. Kempinsky, Radisson Group, Marriot Group, Hilton International, Dusit Hotels, Tune Inn Hotels, Movenpick and the Sheraton are some of the few of the brands that have or will be investing in Kenya.
African investors are also eying the Kenyan market. The coming of Dangote Cement, the Nigerian behemoth, heralds intra-African trade and investment as the trend of the future. Kenya’s leading homegrown companies like the Equity Group and the Kenya Commercial Bank are investing in Africa.
Prof Kagwanja is the Chief Executive of Africa Policy Institute