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Drugs And Society Essay Topics

Drugs Essay Examples

Aspirin-its preparation, history and applications

How drugs are discovered and developed Pharmacologist along with chemist focus on a specific disease and unmet patient needs in order to discover new drugs. They search for biological targets within the body that play a role in a given disease. Unique molecules are found or created that some day might be medicines. Lead Compound… View Article

Prohibition: The So-Called war on drugs

• Nick Possum: In the thrall of the monster drug barons It is also obvious that so much of the government propaganda regarding those fine sacred herbs Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa is just bullshit. • Alcohol worse than ecstasy on shock new drug list The position of ecstasy near the bottom of the list… View Article

Different illicit drugs

Janis Joplin’s experimentation with several different illicit drugs led to her overdose of heroin at the age of 27. Joplin began her fascination with the drug culture as part of the beatnik generation in coffee houses and bars across her home state of Texas and in New York City’s Greenwich Village. Joplin developed a love… View Article

Caffeine – Pharmacology

Now days, college students have been consuming the so-called “energy drinks,” a rapidly evolving class of drink which promise to increase energy, improve alertness, and boost attention. Energy drinks started around the 1990s, the industry has grown with a rate of 55% from 2002 to 2006. Energy drinks are marketed usually to young adults. A… View Article

Performance-Enhancing Drugs

Performance enhancing drugs have been a bane in the field of sports for a very long time, as athletes have tried to gain unfair advantage through its use, and suffered due to the side effects. Two factors have led to a belief that the use of performance enhancing drugs is becoming widespread among sportsmen. The… View Article

Our War On Drugs

A drug can be described as a chemical substance that influences how an individual’s body and mind works (Rees 2005 p. 5). It is uncommon today to hear the word drugs on televisions and read them in magazines. Drugs are virtually everywhere and there is continual development of these drugs. They are used by people… View Article

Aliskiren

Background: Up to a quarter of the world’s population currently suffer from hypertension, putting them at risk of various diseases including heart disease, potentially leading to death. The rennin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been implicated in blood pressure control and there have been clinical trials which have demonstrated that inhibiting RAAS by angiotensin converting enzyme… View Article

Drugs

Most of people when they think of drug abuse will only think of illegal drugs like marijuana or cocaine. The truth is that there is a large number of people who are abusing drugs that are legal and prescribed only by doctors. There is a study done by the United Nations that says that the… View Article

The French Connection

The NYPD is one of the finest law enforcements when it comes to containing drugs, except one, heroin. The business of drugs exponentially grows to new heights every year. Around the early 70’s, heroine was being brought over to the united states at very high rates. New York City was a famous shipping ground for… View Article

Illegal Drugs

The illegal drugs problem in the country is real and pervasive. It is undermining the moral fabric of our society and is victimizing almost everyone, including even young children in the grade schools. It has become a threat to national security. The national drug strategy which is primarily focused on “demand and supply reduction” appears… View Article

Effect of a Narcotic Antagonist on an Addict

Addictive ailments are described by the constant exploit of a drug like cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, alcohol, and other related drugs (McDowell, 1999). These ailments frequently caused by the following: the increase of tolerance for such drugs, requiring further increase on amounts to pull off the preferred outcome; material addiction, differentiated by a series of definite indications… View Article

Behavior Modifying Drugs

“ADHD is a common behavioral disorder that affects an estimated 8% to 10% of people in the United States” (Kutscher). Boys are about three times more likely than girls to be diagnosed with it, though it is not yet understood why. Children with ADHD generally have problems paying attention or concentrating. They cannot seem to… View Article

Drugs and Behavior

Substance abuse describes the increased use of a substance which is likely to have negative effect on the body. Substance abuse refers to the use of substance like alcohol, cigarettes and other hard drugs or the use of common medical drugs for pleasure purposes. Substance abuse has remained to be a leading problem among the… View Article

Everyday Drugs

The essay “Everyday Drugs” written by Adam Smith reminds me that government plays an important role in our lives. The government is an important element for the existence of a state. Without which, a particular society will be in chaos. Anarchy will govern. There will be no order because people are not guided by any… View Article

Chemical Dependency

This paper will discuss Chemical Dependency or Substance Dependency and Substance Abuse in Adolescents; specifically the development, progression and biopsychosocial of dependency and abuse in the adolescent population. The definition of epidemiology and diagnosis will be addressed. Lastly three treatment options including the range of severity will be provided. There is difference between substance abuse… View Article

Name: Celia C. Twindyakirana Student number: 558647 Subject: UNIB20008-Drugs that Shape Society Assignment topic: 2 WAR ON DRUGS War on drugs is a process of reducing illegal drug trade in the U.S.A, involving military interventions and policies that prohibit the consumption, production, and distribution of drugs. It is also commonly followed by the zero tolerance policy, which is an automatic punishment for those who do not obey the rule, with no exception. Australia’s policy toward drugs has the same goals, but is carried out using different approaches. Led by the Australia National Drug Strategy (ANDS), they strive to meet their goals by supply reduction, demand reduction, and harm minimization instead of drug enforcement. Although the war on drugs was declared in the 1970s, by the US president Richard Nixon, the preposition that it has been effectively waged against the citizenry is still a controversial one, since this world has seen many successes and failures. One of the examples of its successes is in Sweden, where drug abuse has been considered a criminal offense since the 1988. Since then, policies and laws have only been growing tighter and tighter. Their aim is to create a drug-free society, using strict policies that are very close to zero tolerance. The United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime [UNODC] (2007) published a review of Sweden’s successful drug policy evidence, showing that Sweden has consistently been one of the countries in Europe with the lowest drug use. Amphetamine use between the age group of 15-64, for example, has fallen from 6.5% in 1959 to only 0.4% in 2000-2003. This leads people to believe that war on drug is needed to send clear messages to the society about how bad drugs are. Drug legalization will just increase drug use, just like what happened in the Alaska experiment in the 1970s (US Drug Enforcement Administration, 2003). A study done in Australia in 2001 by the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research also indicates that prohibition discourages illegal drug consumption. 29% of non-cannabis users between the age of 18-29 expressed that they do not consume because it is illegal, while 19% expressed that illegality is why they consume (Weatherburn, 2001). However, there are also people who believe that the war on drug is failing and should be eradicated. Arguments have emerged as early as in 1936, when University of California Irvine, School of Criminology founder, August Vollmer, expressed his minds in “The Police and Modern Society”. Vollmer (1936) argued that prosecution, imprisonement, strict laws are “useless, enormously expensive, and unbelievably cruel”. He believed that drug addicts are poor, unfortunate people that the government should help, not punish. If the country wants to see a fall in the quantity of drug production and consumption, federal control of distribution of addictive drugs should be established. His opinion on this is based on his belief that drug addiction is a “medical problem”, not a “police problem”. This has been scientifically proven by using brain imaging technology and advanced neuroscience. Scientists have come to understand that the regions of the brain that allow self-control and decision making are disturbed by those drugs. This revolutionary finding has led people to understand that it is not their lack of willpower, but rather their lack of normally functioning brain regions, that pull them down. The modern society seems to be working on their way towards these new approaches. This is seen in many modern policies, including USA herself who declared the war in the first place. President Obama’s administration, that prefers to use the word “strategy” instead of “war”, believes in renewing the idea of drug policies using a science-based approach. Kerlikowske (2013), the current Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), states that the 2013 approach will focus on the collaboration across disciplines, with the idea of having a modern and balanced drug policy. Australia is also on the same page. Formulated in 1985, the 3 pillars of ANDS are supply reduction, demand reduction, and harm reduction. Australia21 (2012) argued that even though the government always proclaims it as balanced, ANDS “relies heavily on the pillar of reducing the supply of drugs so far, which limits their effectiveness”. Harm reduction on the other hand, has achieved many benefits. Their major solutions include supervised injecting centers, needle exchange, and methadone maintenance programs. As a result, the prevalence of HIV and Hepatitis have fallen significantly since then. Other organizations that oppose the war and introduce 21st century, science-based approaches, such as the Global Commission on Drug Policy (GCDP), are starting to emerge as well. It really looks like the beginning of the end of war on drugs as the USA Attorney General, Eric Holder, said, but should war on drugs just end this way? Drug free Australia (DFA) would argue that the prohibition on drugs should be continued because it has been proven successful. In the US for example, the use of illegal drugs with the exception of cannabis fell to below 0.5% in 1955, 43 years after illegal drugs got prohibited. When the hippies culture came about in the early 1960s, drug use sharply rose due to people’s changing perspectives. “Illicit drugs are illicit precisely because they present inordinate mortality or morbidity via their use”, claimed DFA (2010) .They see current legal drugs such as alcohol and tobacco as already causing a lot of harm, and that making illegal drugs legal will just cause more harm. In contrast, critics have also argued that the war on drug has led to many big, devastating impacts. According to the GCDP (2013) report in May, the prevalence of HIV is highest among countries that resist harm reduction (37-43%), lower in countries that implement harm reduction partially (11-16%), and lowest in those who have consistently implemented harm reduction strategies (<5%), with Australia being one of the examples. Hepatitis C prevalence is also proven to be increasing, especially in countries who do not provide access to sterile syringes, and prison environments. Supporters of this believe giving drug-users access to health services without judgement is the key solution. Police circling around places with sanitized needles decreases drugusers’ willingness to access these places, forcing them to use unsanitized needles. GCDP has also argued that needle and syringe distribution in closed settings does not disrupt security or increase injecting drug use. War on drugs has been somehow successful in certain countries, such as Sweden, but have also been proven unsuccessful in other countries like the USA and Australia. Measuring the benefits and the harms is a very difficult process, as not enough study has been done and methods to do so will always differ from time to time, case to case, and place to place. Both sides have their own proven advantages and disadvantages, and so it will always be difficult to separate one from another, or to claim that one is more right than the other. They are like two sides of the same coin; one cannot be fully effective without the other one. Saying that the war on drugs should be eradicated is just as ignorant as saying that it has been successful without question. The best and most efficient way to reduce drug production, distribution, consumption, and harms associated with them is to have a balance between “war on drugs” and other approaches. Policies should also differ from country to country, depending on past evidences on what is effective and what is not. President Obama’s administration is leaning towards this, aiming to use an approach that “rejects the false choice between an enforcement-centric ‘war on drugs’ and drug legalization” (Kerlikowske, 2013) The ANDS is also getting there, by slowly closing the gap between law enforcement and healthcare, transmission of HIV, Hepatitis, and the use of illicit drugs are starting to fall. The ANDS household survey of 2010 reported that there has been a significant decrease in meth/amphetamine users in males between the age of 20-27 since 2007. The main problem that Australia is facing now is that it has to distribute its resources and priority to the 3 pillars equally, not just supply reduction, which seems predominant at the moment. In conclusion we have not fully lost the “war” on drugs, but we might want to stop thinking of it as a war. Strict attitude and prohibition are sometimes needed and can be effective, but violence is not the answer. Policies other than zero tolerance, such as harm minimization, drug regulation, and financing important sectors such as law enforcement, public health or treatment centers, and education should also be highly considered and not underestimated. Although the idea might be vague and unrealistic, there will never be the one and only correct policy that everybody is hoping for if we do not stop tackling this problem from only the two extreme perspectives. BIBLIOGRAPHY Australia 21. (2012). The Prohibition of Drugs is Killing and Criminalising our Children and we are Letting it Happen. Retrieved from http://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/ bbcswebdav/pid-3820020-dt-content-rid-11848337_2/courses/ UNIB20008_2013_SM2/Australia21_Illicit_Drug_Policy_Report.pdf, Australian National Drug Strategy. (2011). 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey Report. Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx? id=10737421314&libID=10737421314 Drug Free Australia (2010). Drug Free Australia Arguments for Prohibition. Retrieved from http://www.drugfree.org.au/fileadmin/Media/Global/ Taskforce_Arguments_for_Prohibition.pdf, Global Commission on Drug Policy. (2013). The Negative Impact of the War on Drugs on Public Health: The Hidden Hepatitis C Epidemic. Retrieved from http:// www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/reports/ Kerlikowske, G. (2013). National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved from http:// www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/2013-national-drug-control-strategy, United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime. (2007). Sweden’s Successful Drug Policy: A Review of the Evidence. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/pdf/research/ Swedish_drug_control.pdf, US Drug Enforcement Administration. (2003). Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/dea/pr/multimedia-library/ publications/ speaking_out.pdf, Vollmer, A. (1936). The Police and Modern Society. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Weatherburn, D. (2001). Does prohibition deter cannabis use?. Retrieved from http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/bocsar/ll_bocsar.nsf/vwFiles/mr_cjb58.pdf/$file/ mr_cjb58.pdf,

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